First of all, what is a stone masonry?
Well, in the broadest sense, stone masonry simply means stone units bonded together with mortar. It's a natural stone structure used to create beautiful facades and architecture.
There are many different types of stone masonry, which we will share with you below:
The two main types of stone masonry are rubble and ashlar, and under these are lots of various subtypes. Here are the main types and subtypes of stone masonry:
This type of masonry uses undressed stones that look like rubble and is created with wide joints to deal with differently sized stones.
They are one of the earliest forms of masonry, and give off a charming pastoral aesthetic perfect for rustic landscapes.
There are four common subtypes of rubble masonry, which are:
These are raw and undressed stones that are roughly shaped with a hammer. Then, the stones are meticulously sorted through to make sure that they fit quite snugly with each other. Precision is also required in ensuring that the joints are mostly lateral rather than vertical.
Meanwhile, square rubble masonry are similar to random rubble, but the stones are squared using a hammer and chisel. These are commonly used for public institutions like government buildings, schools, hospitals, and markets, to name a few.
This type of rubble masonry are made out of irregular multifaceted stones with straight sides. This method, popular with the Incan and Mayan civilizations, produce strong and resilient structures.
Now, this type is made by using the dry stack method- stacking rubble type stones on top of each other without using any form of adhesive. It's hard and meticulous to build, and cannot go over 6 meters in height.
On the other hand, ashlar masonry is the more commonly seen brick like architecture constructed with uniform stones that are homogeneous in size and have level surfaces, and that are glued together with lime mortar or cement.
This type of masonry is more popular for tall buildings and arched bridges. They are also more expensive than rubble masonry.
Here are the four main subtypes of ashlar masonry:
Rough tooled ashlar masonry is made by chisel dressing all the sides of each stone, except for the front, which is either left rough or made especially rough with special tools. It creates a textured and visually appealing structure.
This one is similar to rough tooled masonry, although it gives off the appearance of quarry rocks or structures. This is done by adding a chisel strip around the perimeter of the stones.
Chamfered masonry is a more three dimensional looking structure which is constructed by chamfering the perimeter of the stone face with an angle of 45 degrees and a depth of 25 millimeters.
Finally, fine tooled ashlar masonry is made with perfectly cut stones that are uniform in shape and size, giving them the look of rectangular prisms. This is the most expensive type of stone masonry and is typically made out of artificial stones.
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